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Queen Elizabeth II: Above All Else [FULL MOVIE]

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(gentle music) – I would like above all,
to declare my resolve to continue with the
support of my family, to serve the people of
this great nation of ours to the best of my
ability through the
changing times ahead. What is demanded from us all is something more than
courage and endurance. We need a revival of spirit,
a new unconquerable resolve. – You Ma'am, are
a symbol of unity in a world of insecurity, of continuity in a world
where nothing stays the same. She is an extraordinarily shrewd and perceptive
observer of the world. Hers is advice worth having. – My whole life, whether
it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and to the service of our
great Imperial family, to which we all belong. – The Queen takes
an intense interest in every aspect of
life in our country, and she brings to bare
a formidable grasp of current issues
and a tremendous
breadth to experience. – When I was 21, I pledged my life to the
service of our people. And I asked for God's help
to make good that vow.

Although that vow was
made in my salad days when I was green in judgment, I do not regret nor
retract one word of it. – [Narrator] Queen Elizabeth II, the cornerstone of
modern British history, her inscrutable commitment
to duty above all else has defined her lifetime
of service to the throne and her lifetime
of service to God. Join us as we look
back at the incredible and incomparable life
of Queen Elizabeth II. – Change has become a constant. Managing it has become
an expanding discipline. The way we embrace it
defines our future. – She is stable, she's diligent, and she has an
extraordinary ability to put duty before else. That is the characteristic
that defines her.

(gentle music) I think the day-to-day
life of the Monarch is very regimented. I mean she would be
woken, that's about 7:30. Her dresser would come
in with a cup of tea and some biscuits for the dogs. You know, her clothes
would be laid out. She would dress, have breakfast
and then read the newspapers and listen to the radio. And then her day would start. And her private secretary would
bring her important letters to look at and sign.

And then every 20
minutes during the day, there is an appointment. And it's the same every day
during the working week. So it is a very regimented life. (gentle music) The Queen does choose
her own wardrobe with her various couturiers. And in the early days
it was Norman Hartnell. The Queen is actually
quite interested in clothes and having had so many
fittings during her lifetime, she knows exactly
how things should be and she can spot if a
hem is a little uneven. For you know, she's got
a very, very astute eye and she always says, "I have
to be seen" and so that's why she wears such bright colors. And luckily for her,
she's got a perfect skin. Even in old age, she has
the most beautiful skin so she can wear the most
extraordinarily bright colors.

– First, if she will forgive me, though she is the queen
and the essence of dignity, it is a dignity that is
very much down to earth. Unstuffy, unfussy, indeed
unphased by anything with a keen sense of humor, an amenability for mimicry. – Visits by American presidents have been memorable
landmarks in my reign. Unlike in the United States,
the British head of State is not limited two
terms of four years, (laughing) And I have welcomed no fewer than seven of your predecessors.

– Well, the Queen
actually does have a very well-developed
sense of humor, and she's very funny
and very, very quick, but you don't often see it. The fact that she looks very
somber, but then, you know, her face can crack into
the most wonderful smile. And we learned over the years about her sense of humor and
her ability with mimicry. So we've got to know
her, but very gradually.

(vocalizing)
(gentle music) The Queen and Sir
David Attenborough are almost the same age. I think that David Attenborough
is three weeks older and there was a
wonderful TV documentary in which he sort of
chatted with the Queen. He didn't really interview her and she was showing him round
Buckingham Palace garden, some of the amazing
old trees and plants and things that they have there. And they found, she
showed him a sundial. and she realized it
wasn't in the sunshine. She said "Oh, we better
move that quickly." And so they really bounced
off well against each other. – I was going to say
sundial needs to be planted in the shade. – Isn't it good, yes? – Yep.

(laughs) – How do we sort out that? That it was planted in the shed. It wasn't in the
shade originally, I'm
sure, but (laughs) maybe we can move it. (gentle music) – [Narrator] 1926 Britain
was a very different place, almost unrecognizable in fact. King George V was on the throne and Britain was still recovering from the horrors of the
great war, World War I. On April the 21st, 1926,
the future queen was born, Elizabeth Alexandra Mary.

– Princess Elizabeth had a
very, very happy childhood. She was born in 1926
in the center of London in Briton Street. And it was six weeks
before the general strike. So it was a time of great
political turbulence, but there was still
great excitement about this new Royal baby. People were really interested
in the Royal Family, although they never thought
that she would be an heir to the throne
because at the time, everyone loved the
Prince of Wales, who of course, was later the
Duke of Windsor who abdicated, but and all eyes were on him, but this was a beautiful baby. And she was bought
up by a series of
nannies and nursemaids, and she had very loving
parents and they basically, in those days, people followed
the sporting calendar. The winters were
in Hunting Country, summers were in Scotland and
the season was in London. And Elizabeth had this idyllic
childhood with her parents and horses and dogs, and
also her loving grandparents.

– She did have a
happy childhood. You know that King George IV, her father or the Duke
of York as he then was, he always referred
to himself, his wife, and two daughters as "Us Four". And they were a Royal Family within the broader Royal Family. But because they never
anticipated their ranks and their position and their
responsibilities changing, they were very much, they
anticipated carrying on as being this very close knit, very loving "Us Four" you know. So Princess Margaret
and her sister did have a hugely enjoyable
and very loving childhood. (soft upbeat music) – [Narrator]
Elizabeth and Phillip were first introduced
to one another when Elizabeth was
just eight years old. According to eyewitnesses,
it was at the wedding of Princess Marina of
Greece and Denmark, Phillip's cousin, and
Prince George, Duke of Kent, Elizabeth's uncle in 1934. Phillips suffered a difficult
and strenuous upbringing fraught with tragedy,
moving from place to place, but finally found stability
in the Royal Navy in 1939, when he became a cadet at the
Royal Naval College Dartmouth, the very place five years
later when Elizabeth, 13 and Phillip, 18, would meet
once again, sparks would fly.

And Elizabeth felt great
affection for the man who would one day
become her husband. – Princess Elizabeth met Prince
Phillip at a family wedding, but she can't really
remember that moment. The reason that we
know so much about it is because her governess,
Marion Crawford talks in great detail about
their first meeting at Dartmouth College, where Prince Phillip
was a Naval Cadet. And he was very, very good
looking, 18 years old, very striking, blonde looking.

And he was assigned to look
after the two princesses, Elizabeth and Margaret for
the day for their visit while their parents
went around the college. It's quite strange to think
of an 18-year-old looking after the princesses, the
oldest of whom was 13, but he decided that
it would be fun if they jumped the tennis nets. So he took the
princesses outside and he jumped the
tennis nets for them. And they were very,
very impressed. Later, he went on
board, the vessel that the king and queen
had come to Dartmouth in, and he had lunch, and
then in the following day, he went and had tea.

So that was the meeting
that the princess remembers. – [Narrator]
Elizabeth was just 21 when their engagement
was announced on the 9th of July, 1947. The engagement was not
without controversy. Phillip had no financial
standing, was foreign born and had sisters who had
married German nobleman with Nazi links. Before the marriage,
Phillip renounced his Greek and Danish titles,
efficiently converted from Greek orthodoxy
to Anglicanism and
adopted the style, Lieutenant Phillip Mountbatten, taking the surname of his
mother's British family. Just before the wedding, he
was created Duke of Edinburgh and the granted the
style, His Royal Highness. Elizabeth and
Phillip were married on the 20th of November,
1947 at Westminster Abbey. They received 2,500 wedding
gifts from around the world. Because Britain had not
yet completely recovered from the devastation of the war, Elizabeth required
Russian coupons to buy the material
for her gown, which was designed
by Norman Hartnell.

In post-war Britain,
it was not acceptable for Phillip's German relations, including his three
surviving sisters to be invited to the wedding. – But from Prince
Phillip's perspective, this is someone that had
had to leave their country. They didn't have a
home of their own. All his sisters were married
to German aristocracy and lived in enormous castles. And there's Phillip knew living off the Goodwill
of his relations. So I think that the idea
of marrying a princess that was going to
inherit so much must've been very attractive. And he was pushed by his
uncle, Louis Mountbatten, who was the great kin maker. And he really pushed Phillip
into kind of maintaining a relationship with
Princess Elizabeth, who she was completely smitten
with him from the age of 13. And I think she started right. She wrote to him to say, you know, thank you for
entertaining us at Dartmouth. And I suppose she gradually,
gradually kept up. Then of course, during the
time when he was on leave, on shore leave, he often went
to stay at Windsor Castle. (bells chiming) (gun exploding) – [Reporter] Her Royal
Highness is the proud and happy mother of a prince.

The salute is fired and
in the Monarch's home lies the infant boy who
will one day be king. On Saturday, the eminent
gynecologist, William Gilliat was called to the palace for
the most responsible case and even in his career. By his advice, Sister H.M.
Roe was chosen midwife. The whole country knew that
the baby would soon be born. All day on Sunday
people waited outside the palace including
fake magic best men with whom it was a point of
honor to show no excitement. And all day there
was no announcement. It was often 10 of night
that those who waited and they were very many, heard the tremendous news,
a Royal baby and a boy. Video gave no advantage
to watchers at the palace. The glad tidings
went out everywhere. – [BBC Reporter] This
is the BBC Home Service.

It has been announced officially
from Buckingham palace during the past hour
that Her Royal Highness, the Princess Elizabeth,
Duchess of Edinburgh was safely delivered of a
prince at 9:14 p.m. today. And that her Royal Highness and
her son are both doing well. – [Narrator]
Elizabeth gave birth to her first child,
Prince Charles on the 14th of November 1948. One month earlier, the king
had issued letters patent allowing her children to
use the style and title of a Royal Prince or Princess to which they would otherwise
not have been entitled as their father was no
longer a Royal prince.

A second child, Princess
Anne was born in 1950. (celebratory upbeat music) – [Reporter] New joy has come to the Royal Family in the birth to Princess Elizabeth at
Clarence House of a second son. But of course, the joy is not
restricted to the Royal Family and messages of congratulations
all over the world have been poring into
the princess's home ever since the
news became known. (bright music) The early years of
marriage have set the seal on the happiness of the
princess and her husband. The blessing of children
has come not only to enrich their lives, but also to establish securely
the line of succession.

(fanfare music) In Prince Charles, the
public has acquired a new popular
subject of interest of whom some delightful
pictures have been taken. We should like to see more of
him by the insatiable demand of the public has had to bow to the princess's very
proper determination that her son shall not
be spoiled by publicity. The public would
be no less curious to see the first
pictures of his brother to compare the likenesses
and note the differences.

To Sir William Gilliatt,
the great gynecologist, fell the medical responsibility of seeing the new prince
safety into the world. The nurse was Ms. Helen Rowe. Everything possible to
ensure the safety and health of mother and son
was naturally done, but there must
always be anxiety. That is now over and
the nation's rejoicing is marked by salute of gun. This is fired in Hyde park by the Royal Horse
Artillery in full dress. (guns exploding) – I declare before you
all, that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and to the service of our
great Imperial family, to which we all belong. But I shall not have strength to carry out this
resolution alone, unless you join in it with
me as I now invite you to do.

I know that your support
will be unfailingly given. God help me to make good my vow and God bless all of you, who
are willing to share in it. (somber music) – [Ingrid] Well,
I think the reason that the Queen is referred to by some historians is
on the unlikely queen, is that, you know, she
wasn't prepared to be queen. She was married in
1947 and she expected to have a proper
longish married life before her father died. But he died quite suddenly. So she was an unlikely queen
and also she wasn't designated to be queen because her
uncle who became Edward VIII very briefly abdicated
and put Elizabeth directly in the line of succession. – When their uncle, David, as
he was known to the family, otherwise King Edward
VIII abdicated, it was Princess Elizabeth
who told Princess Margaret. And she said, "Uncle
David's going away and Papa is to be king." And Princess
Margaret said to her, "Does that mean you're
going to be queen?" And Elizabeth said,
"Yes, one day." And nothing more was ever
said about it or between them and Princess Elizabeth
is, as we know, very well is able to compartmentalize
aspects of her life.

So she realized,
this girl of 10, that one day she
would become queen, but she tucked that away
and she carried on being a normal natural 10-year-old. I mean, things did change
for Princess Elizabeth as heir presumptive
because it was felt that on an educational level that she needed
higher education, particularly when you think
of the British constitution and matters like that, that it was now crucial that she should be
very well aware of. And so she was given this
additional instruction by the then Provost of Eaton
College, Sandra Martin. – [Narrator] During 1951,
George VI's health declined and Elizabeth frequently stood
in for him at public events and visited President Harry
S. Truman in Washington, D.C. in October, 1951. Her private secretary,
Martin Charteris carried a draft accessioned declaration
in case the king died while she was on tour. – What happened was the Princess
Elizabeth and Prince Philip were standing in for
the king and queen. And they started a big
Commonwealth tour in Kenya as it was called in those days. And the people of Kenya
wanted them to be there and they'd given them a lodge
for their wedding present.

And the sort of joy for them was that they were going
to visit this game reserve. And there was a little
place called Tree Tops, which was overlooking
a Salt Lake. So you could really
see the animals. You know, this is 1952. So the whole of Kenya
was teaming with game and they spent the
night up there. And actually, it was
during the night, unbeknownst to the princess
that she became queen. So they went, they
left the game viewing, went back to Sagona Lodge
and had a little sleep because they'd
been up all night. When the news came across to Prince Phillip's private
secretary, Mike Parker, that the king had died. And he thought that… He eventually had one
of those little radios and he fiddled with it and eventually heard
the sounds of Big Ben and he knew that
the news was true.

And it was his duty to
tell Prince Phillip, which was probably, he says
later, the most difficult thing he'd ever had to do in his life. So he went to Prince Phillip
and told him the news that his wife, Prince
Phillip's wife was queen. So Prince Phillip
was in such shock. He just put a
newspaper over his face and let the news just absorb. And then he got up and he went and got the princess
out of her bedroom where she was resting and
took her down to the lake at the bottom of the garden. And the lady-in-waiting
tells a wonderful story. She watched the walk up
and down, up and down, and she knew that
he was telling her. And when they walked back
into the lodge, she wanted, she was putting her
arms around the princess when she thought my goodness, but she's queen and
dropped into a curtsy. And then of course, they
had to make their way back to England as
quickly as possible. But she went by the
time they arrived back at London airport, she
came down the steps, beautifully dressed in her
black clothes and Prince Philip waited on the steps until
she was at the bottom.

And she greeted
her prime minister. And that's how it was
going to be from then on. Well, I think Prince
Philip never envisaged that his young princess
would become queen so quickly or they thought they
had years ahead of them. So I think it was very
difficult when suddenly, his wife became
queen and, you know, he was demoted if you like, to forever walk
two steps behind. And he was treated very badly by the stuffy old
courtiers at the palace.

And they thought he
was an interloper and he was far too German. And although he was a
Greek prince, you know, he had a lot of German blood. So they just called him and
just thought he was German. And so it was very,
very difficult for him. (gentle music) The Princess Elizabeth became
queen in February, 1952. And the coronation
was in June, 1953, but there was no plan
for her coronation. There had been a plan for
her uncle's coronation, Edward VIII's, but that
had been scuppered. So it takes a long time to
pull all the ends together. So it was decided
that they would wait until June the following year and then everything
could be lined up because for a coronation, you've got to have
all the heads of state from all the various
countries of the Commonwealth.

So you couldn't just say, well, we're gonna have it in November. Everybody needed time
to organize things. Well, the historical
significance of the coronation is that it's a very
ancient ceremony and the Queen as
she was by then, but she has to be anointed
in the eyes of God. And that is the
coronation ceremony. So she sits on the throne in a very simple
white linen dress, and she has holy oil
put on her forehead. And that makes her queen
in the eyes of God, which is why she always said
in all her speeches, you know, "I will rule and
I will do my duty and as long as I'm fit
and able to do so." So it it's an anointing
ceremony in the eyes of God. And that was the great
importance of it. And then of course, you've got all the
pomp and ceremony of all the Lords and the ladies and the dignitaries
and the heads of state.

So it was an enormous
undertaking and it was televised because Prince Phillip
pushed the idea that it would be a great thing for the country and the
Commonwealth and the world even, to have this ancient
ceremony televised. And it was. It was taken back
to America by plane. And I know the two big
networks at the time, which was CBS and NBC were in a sort of a race
against each other to see who could get
the film footage first. So there was all kinds
of things like that. And although America got
a little tiny snippet of the coronation, they didn't have the
full ceremony obviously. It had to be played out
in cinemas in those days. (gentle music) Well, when the queen came to
the throne, she was only 26 and Churchill made the remark
to his private secretary, "But she's a child." But she wasn't a child. She was very sophisticated
and mature mentally.

And it was a man's world. And women were really
subservient in those days. And the Queen was walking
into this world of men who were all much,
much older than her, and also she hadn't
really been taught that she said there was
no way to be taught. All she did was she
watched what her father did and followed him. So of course, the court
was very old fashioned and very stuffy, you know, because it was really
her father's court. – It is a real pleasure
to have an opportunity so early in my reign of
visiting such a beautiful part of the Principality, and to see that
the natural beauty of these Welsh hills
has not been impaired by this vast work of
modern engineering. I thank you, my Lord
Mayor for the kind terms of your loyal welcome to
myself and my husband. In declaring open the
Claerwen Reservoir, I congratulate you and
all concerned with it on the completion of
this great undertaking and express my good wishes
for its successful operation. (gentle music) – [Ingrid] I think the
day-to-day life of the Monarch is very regimented. Her private secretary would
bring her important letters to look at and sign.

And then every 20
minutes during the day, there is an appointment. And it's the same every day
during the working week. So it is a very regimented life. (gentle music) – At this moment of
my Silver Jubilee, I want to thank all those in
Britain and the Commonwealth who through their
loyalty and friendship have given me strength
and encouragement during these last 25 years. My thanks go also to
the many thousands who have sent me messages
of congratulations on my Silver Jubilee, that and their good
wishes for the future. My Lord Mayor, when I was 21, I pledged my life to the
service of our people. And I asked for God's help
to make good that vow. Although that vow was
made in my salad days when I was green in judgment, I do not regret nor
retract one word of it. (audience applauds) (gentle music) – [Narrator] Since Elizabeth
rarely gives interviews, little is known of
her personal feelings. As a constitutional Monarch, she has not expressed her
own political opinions in a public forum. She does have a deep sense
of religious and civic duty and takes her coronation
oath seriously.

Aside from her official
religious role as
Supreme Governor of the established
Church of England, she is a member of that church and also of the national
Church of Scotland. (slow music) – I think the characteristics
that spring to mind to me are that she is stable,
she is diligent, and she has an
extraordinary ability to put duty before
else, before everything. And that is, you
know, a characteristic that really doesn't
exist anymore. But the queen was probably
the last person, you know, to decide that duty
was everything. Duty became before
personal happiness. Duty became before
family and children. And that is the characteristic
that defines her. (gentle music) – I remember first coming
to broadcasting house with my father, the king, and my mother and sister
shortly before the war.

I came again with
the Duke of Edinburgh just before the
coronation in 1953. I was struck then as I am now
by the sheer pace of change, which has transformed our
industry over the past 60 years. – As the Queen mentioned,
the first visit here by the Royal Family was in 1939 when two young princesses
were taken by their father, King George VI, and their
mother, Queen Elizabeth into a control room. There, they were played
some sound effects and invited to experiment
with recording technology. This archive, which has
never been heard before is a fragment of that
visit nearly 75 years ago. – [Queen Elizabeth] We had a very interesting
afternoon here. We heard all the noises. Did you like it? – [Princess Margaret]
Yes, very much.

(giggling) – [Queen Elizabeth] What
did you like best of all? – [Princess Margaret]
I liked the storm. – [Queen Elizabeth] Yes, I
like the storm very much. (giggling) – [Queen Elizabeth]
Like you talked proper. Say how are you? – [Princess Margaret] Good
afternoon, (indistinct) – [Queen Elizabeth] I've spent
a fascinating afternoon here. It's been very
interesting, isn't it? – [Man] It has. (indistinct) (bright music) – [News Announcer] The
late King's daughter became England's second
queen, Queen Elizabeth, carefully read to
her responsibilities. She has already captured
the affections of Britons during her short reign. – [Narrator] The British Empire
had been changing its shape over the previous decades
and more and more countries were gaining their independence. Many of these countries
wanted the freedom of being independent whilst retaining
some of the beneficial ties, including trading
and foreign affairs. Elizabeth had dedicated her
life at the tender age of 21. And by the late 1960s, most of the British territory
has became independent, but had joined the Commonwealth. It was a time of
great transition on the respect from
her late father and her continued
dedication maintained the structure and influence
of the organization.

– But the Queen and Duke
on the Observation Bridge to catch the fullest view
of the approach to Hobart. Small boats are out to
welcome them as Gothic and her Navy escort move
towards Princess ball. It's a glorious sunny day and the Royal couple
arrived early. Both of them said
they wished to see as much of Australia as they can and they are certainly
missing no opportunity. The yachts line the
sides of the Derwent as the Royal yacht
eases towards Hobart But as it is, population
has fallen to almost double and there are rousing cheers
as Gothic comes alongside. (gentle music) – [Narrator] Even through
periods of political unease, the Commonwealth has
continued to grow and become a remarkable
force for change. – [Reporter] This is a
Royal command performance. Children of Tasmania
parade before their queen, who too lives in a small island. Her thoughts are undoubtedly
now with her own children.

– Having on so many occasions, been welcomed to
opening ceremonies around the Commonwealth, it is a pleasure this time to
welcome you to my own home. Here at Buckingham
Palace in 1949, my father met the
heads of government when they ratified the
London Declaration, which created the Commonwealth
as we know it today. I remember my own
lifelong commitment made in South Africa in
1947 at the age of 21. As another birthday
approaches this week, I'm reminded of the
extraordinary journey
we have been on and how much good
has been achieved. I believe we will secure
a safer, more prosperous and sustainable world
for those who follow us, a world where the Commonwealth
generosity of spirit can bring its gentle touch
of healing and hope to all. (gentle music) – [Narrator] In the
1970s, Elizabeth broke
a Royal tradition during her Royal tour of
Australia and New Zealand, opting to do a walk-about, greeting the crowds in person instead of the usual
way from a distance, which delighted the people and has now become regular
practice for working Royals. (gentle music) (slow music) Lady Diana Spencer became a
member of the Royal Family, wedding Elizabeth's eldest
child, Charles in 1981, a relationship that would
change the whole shape and style of the monarchy.

Though Charles and
Diana seemed like the fairytale
match, tensions grew as the couples incompatibilities
quickly came to light. The Queen and Prince
Phillip attempted to intervene just enough to try
to keep the couple together. Their attempts proved futile as the marriage fell
apart very publicly, causing considerable
scrutiny from the press. (slow music) – Well, 1992 was the worst
year of the Queen's life. And she gave a speech at
the Mansion House in London towards the end of '92. And she said she was
going to refer to the year as an annus horribilis
and we all knew why. Because there was her daughter, Princess Anne was separated,
divorced, and remarried at the end of the year. Well, the remarriage was happy, but so her daughter's
marriage had broken down. Fergie and Andrew's
marriage had broken down.

But far the worst thing was
the breakdown of the marriage of the Prince and
Princess of Wales and the official announcement
that they were going to split. And then on top of all that
came the fire at Windsor Castle on the Queen's anniversary. A curtain caught upon a light in the chapel at Windsor Castle, and it just blazed
and the fire raced through all the
state departments. It was a huge fire,
but lucky, very, very few things were lost,
but it was devastating.

And then the prime minister
asked the country if they would be prepared to pay
for the reconstruction
of Windsor Castle. And basically, the
queen's subjects said, no. I mean, although Windsor Castle is an official state
building, not her own, the general consensus was that
we didn't want to pay for it. So then the Queen had to pay tax and it just really
wasn't a good year. (gentle music) – 1992 is not a year on
which I shall look back with undiluted pleasure. In the words of one of my more
sympathetic correspondence, it just turned out to be an
"Annus Horribilis" (laughing) in that old maxim
"moderation in all things." I sometimes wonder
how future generations will judge the events
of this tumultuous year.

I dare say that
history could take a slightly more moderate view than that of some
contemporary commentators. He who has never failed to
reach perfection has a right to be the harshest critic. There can be no doubt of course, that criticism is good for
people and institutions that are part of public life. New institution, city,
monarchy, whatever should expect to be free from the
scrutiny of those who give it their
loyalty and support, not to mention those who don't. But we are all part
of the same fabric of our national society. And that scrutiny by
one part of another can be just as
effective if it is made with a touch of gentleness,
good humor and understanding. This sort of
questioning can also act and it should do so as an
effective engine for change. (gentle music) – I think that the
death of Princess Diana was the biggest crisis
of the Queen's reign and probably something
that historically, she will be judged by.

And I think despite
the film, "The Queen", and despite "The Crown", people still think the
queen handled it badly and didn't seem to understand what her subjects were
feeling and thinking. But I think the Queen
didn't understand because they traditionally,
the Royal Family, when there is a death and
there've been many, many, they mourn quietly
amongst themselves. And the Queen thought
because of William and Harry, it would be utter
cruelty to expose them to crowds of wailing people and that they must
be kept at Balmoral. But it actually was
wrong as it turned out, but she remedied the situation. But I think it
will still be seen as probably one of the
disasters of her reign. So when the Queen
and Philip arrived in London from Balmoral, there were crowds
and crowds of people outside Buckingham
Palace and flowers.

And the queen was
actually very nervous because there was
such an atmosphere. I mean, I was there. I remember the
atmosphere was sort of, you almost felt that there
was gonna be a revolution, but she walked through the crowd and for the moment
it was silent. And then a lady handed her
some flowers and she said, "Oh, shall I put
them by the gate?" She said, "No ma'am,
they are for you." And that broke the tension. And after that,
it was all right. – First, I want to pay
tribute to Diana, myself. She was an exceptional
and gifted human being. In good times and in bad, she never lost her capacity
to smile and laugh, nor to inspire others with
her warmth and kindness. I admired and respected
her for her energy and commitment to others, and especially, for her
devotion to her two boys. This week at Balmoral,
we have all been trying to help William and
Harry come to terms with the devastating
loss that they and the rest of
us have suffered. No one who knew Diana
will ever forget her. Millions of others
who never met her, but felt they knew
her, will remember her.

I, for one believe there
are lessons to be drawn from her life and
from the extraordinary and moving reaction
to her death. (gentle music) – [Narrator] 2002 was an
incredibly difficult year for Her Majesty. Her sister, Princess
Margaret died in the King Edward VII's
hospital, London at 6:30 a.m. on February the
9th, 2002 at age 71. One day after having
suffered a stroke that resulted in
cardiac problems.

And three days after
the 50th anniversary of her father's death, the Prince of Wales
paid tribute to his aunt in a televised broadcast. On the 30th of March,
2002 at 3:15 p.m., the Queen Mother
died in her sleep at the Royal Lodge
Windsor, Great Park with Queen Elizabeth
II at her bedside. And despite an incredibly
difficult period of loss and mourning, Queen Elizabeth made a
televised address to the nation in order to thank
them for their support and well-wishes during
such a tough time. – Ever since my beloved
mother died over a week ago, I have been deeply moved by
the outpouring of affection, which has accompanied her death.

My family and I always
knew what she meant for the people of this country and the special
place she occupied in the hearts of so many
here in the Commonwealth and in other parts of the world. But the extent of the tribute, that huge numbers of
you have paid my mother in the last few days
has been overwhelming. I have drawn great comfort
from so many individual acts of kindness and respect. Over the years, I
have met many people who have had to cope
with family loss, sometimes in the most
tragic of circumstances. So I count myself fortunate
that my mother was blessed with a long and happy life.

She had an infectious
zest for living, and this remained with
her until the very end. I know too, that her faith was always a great
strength to her. – The queen was very, very close to her mother and her sister. So for both of them to pass away within two months of each other was a sort of double
shock for her. Her sister was very unwell. And I think that didn't
come as a surprise.

And because of the Queen
Mother's great age, that didn't come as
a surprise either, but it was still a shock. And she was still, you know, full of grief for the passing. But luckily, she was
actually out riding when her mother
started to slip away and her staff managed
to get a message to her. So she got back to
her mother's bedside. So she was there. The whole country was so moved by the passing of
the Queen Mother, that the queen actually
gave a speech from Windsor, thanking everyone
for their concern, their good wishes and their
loyalty to her mother. – I'm naturally somewhat biased, but I think all children
have done all the well under very different, difficult
and demanding circumstances. (audience applauding) I think I hope we
can be forgiven for feeling rather
proud of them.

And I'm also encouraged
to see what a good start the next generation is making. I think that the main
lesson that we've learned is that tolerance is the
one essential ingredient of any happy marriage. It may not be quite so important
when things are going well, but it is absolutely vital
when things get difficult and you can take it
from me that the Queen has the quality of
tolerance and abundance. (audience laughs) – I think many people have asked the Queen and her
husband, Phillip what is the secret of
their relationship? And the Queen has spoken
out on a few occasions and she said, patience,
sense of humor, and she had said
famously, of course, that Prince Phillip had
simply been her rock and her stay over the years.

And he had. He'd always been
there to support her, although he never
involved himself in constitutional affairs, he
was there as a sounding board. He was someone to
listen and someone who would be on her side or
would give her a criticism, which of course nobody
else really could. – A humble and hearty
thanks to all those in Britain and around the
world who have welcomed us and sustained us and our family in the good times and the bad so unstintingly over many years. This has given us strength. Most recently
during the sad days after the tragedy
of Diana's death. It is you, if I may not
speak to all of you directly who have seen us through and helped us to
make our duty firm. We are deeply grateful
to you each and everyone.

Yesterday, I listened
as Prince Phillip spoke at the Guildhall, and I then proposed
our host's health. Today, the roles are reversed. All too often, I
fear Prince Phillip has had to listen
to me speaking. Frequently, we have discussed
my intended speech beforehand. And as you will imagine, his views have been expressed
in a forthright manner. (audience laughs) He is someone doesn't take
easily to compliments, but he has quite
simply been my strength and stay all these years. And I and his whole family, and this and many other
countries, owe him a debt much greater
than he would ever claim or we shall ever know.

(somber music) – [Narrator] There have been
few times the Monarch makes a televised address
to the nation. Well, she does her
annual Christmas speech. Such an address at any other
time of year is very rare, and usually in response to
grief or crisis in the nation. COVID-19 was no exemption. As it swept across the world
and country after country was forced to lock down, the Queen made her
speech in April 2020. – I'm speaking to
you at what I know is an increasingly
challenging time, a time of disruption in
the life of our country, a disruption that has
brought grief to some, financial difficulties to many and enormous changes to
the daily lives of us all. We should take comfort that while we may have
more still to endure, better days will return. We will be with
our friends again. We will be with
our families again.

We will meet again. – [Narrator] with reference
to the wartime Britain she had once faced, she encouraged Britons
to feel the same spirit of togetherness in the fight
against a common enemy. (somber music) On the 9th of April, 2021, Prince Philip, Duke of
Edinburgh, died aged 99. – And I particularly wanted
to say that my father, I suppose the last 70 years
has given the most remarkable, devoted service to the
Queen, to my family and to the country and also to
the head of the Commonwealth. And as you can imagine, my family and I miss
my father enormously. He was a much loved
and appreciated figure. And apart from anything
else I could imagine, he must've deeply touched by
the number of other people here and elsewhere around the
world, in the Commonwealth, who also I think, share
our loss and our sorrow.

– [Narrator] To Her
Majesty the Queen, this would come as
a devastating loss. Prince Phillip has
walked two steps behind Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth ever since she
became queen in 1952 and has been the supporting
man, husband and father that the Royal Family
has needed him to be. Over the years, his
personality has shown through in his charitable work
and public appearances. He was not your run off the
mill, stiff upper lip royalty by any means. His wit and charm has
endeared him to many and sometimes got
him into trouble, but he will always be admired
for his lifetime of duty. Elizabeth took great comfort in the many ways Britons celebrated Prince Phillip's
extraordinary life, though Prince Andrew
revealed Phillip's death left a huge void for Elizabeth. In the following months, the Queen returned
dutifully to her work, maintaining as always,
her stoic attitude. Quite touchingly,
whilst the Queen was unable to attend the COP
26 Conference due to illness, she prepared a video speech
in which she paid tribute to the work of her
beloved husband. She even wore a beautiful
butterfly brooch she was gifted on
her wedding day, and one that she
very rarely wears.

– This is a duty I'm
especially happy to discharge as the impact of the
environment on human progress was a subject close to the heart of my dad, late
husband, Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh. I remember well that in 1969,
he told an academic gathering, if the world pollution situation is not critical at the moment, it is as certain
as anything can be that the situation will become
increasingly intolerable within a very short time. It is a source of
great pride to me that the leading role
my husband played in encouraging people to protect
our fragile planet lives on through the work
of our eldest son, Charles and his
eldest son, William. I could not be
more proud of them. – [Narrator] In the
weeks following, Queen Elizabeth spent
a night in hospital and was advised by
doctors she must rest. A very important event
for the Monarch each year is attending The Cenotaph
on Remembrance Sunday, and she was determined to
make it for this event. (soft band music) – [Reporter] For
the last four years, the Prince of Wales has
taken his mother's place at The Cenotaph, but the Queen has still
viewed the service from the balconies above.

Today, though, there was a
missing figure at the spot where the Queen was
supposed to stand. Her cousins, the Duke of Kent and Princess Alexandra
stood without her. (somber music) Below, Prince Charles
looked particularly somber after he laid the Queen's
wreath on her behalf. Less than two hours earlier, Buckingham Palace announced
the Queen had sprained her back and with great regret,
had been forced to cancel. – [Narrator] After
fears from the public, she has since returned
to light in-person duties whilst also continuing
to rest and recover. Queen Elizabeth continues to fulfill her duty
above all else. – Change has become a constant. Managing it has become
an expanding discipline. The way we embrace it
defines our future.

These values find expression
in our national institutions, including the monarchy
and parliament, institutions which in turn
must continue to evolve if they are to provide
effective beacons of trust and unity to
succeeding generations. We also take pride
in our tradition of fairness and tolerance. The consolidation of
our richly multicultural and multi-faith society, a major development since 1952 is being achieved
remarkably peacefully and with much Goodwill. I would like above all
to declare my resolve to continue with the
support of my family, to serve the people of
this great nation of ours, to the best of my
ability through the
changing times ahead. (gentle music).

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